ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH – Law Number 36 of 2009 concerning Health emphasizes that environmental health efforts are aimed at realizing a healthy environmental quality, both physically, chemically, biologically and socially which enables everyone to achieve the highest degree of health.
A healthy environment includes residential areas, workplaces, recreation areas, as well as public places and facilities, must be free from elements that cause disturbances, including waste (liquid, solid and gas), waste that is not processed according to requirements, disease vectors, substances hazardous chemicals, noise that exceeds the threshold, radiation, polluted water, polluted air and contaminated food.
Government Regulation Number 66 of 2014 concerning Environmental Health states that environmental health is an effort to prevent disease and/or health problems from environmental risk factors to create a quality healthy environment both from physical, chemical, biological and social aspects. Meanwhile, according to WHO, environmental health includes all physical, chemical and biological factors from outside the human body and all factors that can affect human behavior. Environmental health conditions and controls have the potential to affect health.
A. COMMUNITY-BASED TOTAL SANITATION (STBM)
Regulation of the Minister of Health Number 3 of 2014 concerning Community-Based Total Sanitation (STBM) states that STBM is an approach to changing hygienic and sanitary behavior through community empowerment by means of triggering. STBM implementation aims to realize hygienic and sanitary community behavior independently in order to improve the highest degree of public health.
The community organizes STBM independently based on the pillars of STBM which aims to break the chain of transmission of disease and poisoning. The STBM pillars consist of the following behaviors:
Stop Open Defecation
Hand Washing With Soap
Management of Household Drinking Water and Food
Household Waste Security
Securing Household Liquid Waste
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Referring to the Regulation of the Minister of Health Number 3 of 2014, the strategy for implementing Community-Based Total Sanitation (STBM) includes 3 (three) components that mutually support each other, which are referred to as the 3 Components of Total Sanitation, as follows:
1. Creating a conducive environment (enabling environment)
Objective: to create a supportive environment through cross-sector and cross-program synergies, strengthening through regulations that support the implementation of STBM, and building inter-regional learning mechanisms.
2. Increase in Sanitation Needs (demand creation)
Objective: to increase the community’s need for sanitation facilities through triggering, monitoring and the use of behavior change communication media.
3. Increasing provision of sanitation access (supply improvement)
Objective: to increase the provision of sanitation facilities with a variety of choices that are widely accessible to the community.